EMAS Position Statements and Clincial Guides
- Life expectancy has considerably increased since 1970 , and now >50% of women are expected to break the 90-year barrier by 2030 . Growing older rather than old means spending almost half of life after the menopause, challenging the concept of healthy ageing . Iatrogenic menopause may be induced by cancer treatment or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for benign disease and may occur before the average age of natural menopause, which is around the age of 50 [4,5]. The sudden fall in estrogen levels with iatrogenic menopause may lead to rapid onset of vasomotor symptoms .
- Women's health is increasingly recognized as a global health priority . The menopause, or the cessation of menstruation, is a stage of the life cycle which will occur in all women. The average age at menopause is 51 years. With increasing life expectancy many women will live for several decades after the menopause. However, the menopause can occur much earlier, either naturally, with no identifiable underlying cause , or as a consequence of disease, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The resulting estrogen deficiency may lead to menopausal symptoms which, for some, can present considerable difficulties in their working lives, discrimination in the workplace and even unemployment .
- Osteoporosis and the resulting fractures are major public health issues as the world population is ageing. Various therapies such as bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate and more recently denosumab are available. This clinical guide provides the evidence for the clinical use of selective estrogen modulators (SERMs) in the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
- There is emerging evidence on the widespread tissue effects of vitamin D.
- Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a serious cardiovascular event whose incidence rises with increasing age.