EMAS Position Statements and Clincial Guides
- Worldwide, dyslipidemias are one of the leading causes of cardiovascular disease, mainly coronary heart disease . Dyslipidemias are also associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke . Dyslipidemias embrace a wide constellation of lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities. Lipoproteins bind lipids and are involved in their transport. Lipid abnormalities include high serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or triglycerides and/or low concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C).
- Bisphosphonates are structural analogues of inorganic pyrophosphate, where the oxygen atom has been substituted by a carbon atom. Differences in the R2 side-chain bound to the carbon atom and the nitrogen group determine their variations in duration of action, bone affinity and anti-fracture efficacy [1,2]. Bisphosphonates inhibit enzymes involved in osteoclastic activity, and thus suppress bone resorption [1,2]. The main bisphosphonates are alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate and zoledronic acid, which constitute the first-line therapeutic agents in both postmenopausal and male osteoporosis, as they have well-documented anti-fracture efficacy [1,2].
- Approximately 1.3% of women will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer at some point during their life. Mortality is high, with a 5-year survival rate ranging from 36% to 46%, although there has been a net survival improvement during the last decades, especially among young and mid-aged women [1,2].
- Breast cancer remains the most frequent cancer in women and its incidence is increasing. However, the mortality rate has stabilized due to the progress made in the treatment of breast cancer over the last decade. In premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, the goal of adjuvant treatment is to inhibit the impact of estrogen on the breast, either by blocking the estrogen receptors (with the use of tamoxifen) or by suppressing ovarian function (through surgical oophorectomy or treatment with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist).
- The term genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) emerged following a consensus conference held in May 2013. GSM is a more descriptive term than vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and does not imply pathology. However there are concerns that GSM is all encompassing and includes not only symptoms resulting from estrogen deficiency, but also those arising from the effects of ageing and other processes on the bladder and pelvic floor. Focusing on symptoms related to estrogen deficiency, the update provides a practical guide for health and allied health professionals on the impact of GSM on women and their partners, assessment, management and areas for future research.