EMAS Position Statements and Clincial Guides
- The menopause, or the cessation of menstruation, is a normal stage of life. The average age of the menopause is 51 years. However, it can occur much earlier, either naturally, with no identifiable underlying cause , or as a consequence of disease, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. In 2020, globally 657 million women were aged 45–59  (Fig. 1). Overall, 47% of these women worldwide contributed to the labor force, but the figures varied both regionally, ranging from 22% to 63%, as well as by age: 64%, 59%, 51%, at age 45–49, 50–54, and 55–59 respectively .
- Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as a “complaint of involuntary loss of urine” . The prevalence of the condition increases with age, and it is reported to affect 58%–84% of elderly women . The reported prevalence of UI varies widely because of the different definitions and assessment tools for diagnosis employed . The general prevalence is reported to be between 38 % and 55 % in women over 60 years . Despite this high prevalence, UI remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. Up to half of women may not report incontinence to their healthcare provider and this may be due to embarrassment or to the belief that UI is a normal part of aging.