This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.
Objective: To measure the thickness of the individual layers (externa, media, intima) of the carotid artery in two groups of postmenopausal women. Methods: A high resolution ultrasound (25-MHz Osteoson DIII Minhorst) was used to assess the distal end of the common carotid artery. Forty-six women were on hormone replacement therapy (Premarin 0.625 mg nad Norgestrel 1 mg) for more than 1 year. The measurements of the treated group were compared to those of 51 postmenopausal women who acted as controls. Results: No significant difference between the externa and media layers of both groups of women were noted. The media showed a tendency to be thicker in the treated group. The intima of the untreated group was found to be significantly thicker than that of the treated group (P < 0.05). Significant correlations were found between the layers of the carotid artery especially between the externa and media both mainly composed of connective tissue (Collagen Type I and III and elastin). The media/intima ratio of the treated women was significantly higher than that of the untreated group (P < 0.003). Conclusion: It is postulated that the changes observed may be due to the effect of oestrogen on connective tissue. These arterial changes induced by hormone replacement therapy may partially explain the cardioprotective effect this treatment has on postmenopausal women. The increased intimal thickness in untreated women compared to treated ones on the other hand would represent the reduction in atheromatous plaque formation in women on oestrogen replacement therapy.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Maturitas
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Postmenopausal oestrogen therapy and cardiovascular disease. Ten year follow-up from The Nurses Health Study.N Engl J Med. 1991; 325: 756-762
- Coronary risk and oestrogen use in postmenopausal women.Am J Epidemiol. 1978; 107: 479-487
- Menopausal oestrogen therapy and protection from death from ischaemic heart disease.Lancet. 1981; i: 858-860
- Long term surveillance of mortality and cancer incidence in women receiving hormone replacement therapy.Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1987; 94: 620-635
- Effects of estrogen and estrogen/progesterone regimens on heart disease risk factors in postmenopausal women. The postmenopausal estrogen/progestogen Intervention (PEPI) trial.J Am Med Assoc. 1995; 273: 199-208
- Inhibition of coronary artery atherosclerosis by 17β-Estradiol in ovariectomized monkeys: lack of an effect of added progesterone.Atherosclerosis. 1990; 10: 1051-1057
- Sonographic evaluation of carotid artery atherosclerosis in the elderly: relationship of disease severity to stroke and transient ischaemic attack.Radiology. 1993; 188: 363-370
- Common carotid intima-media thickness measurement. A method to improve accuracy and precision.Stroke. 1994; 25: 1588-1592
- Histopathologic correlation of the three layered intravascular ultrasound appearance of normal adult human muscular arteries.Am Heart J. 1993; 126: 872-878
- Decline in skin collagen control and metacarpel index after the menopause and its prevention with sex hormone replacement.Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1995; 194: 126-129
- A Nomograph Method for Assessing Body Weight.Am J Clin Nutr. 1976; 29: 302-304
- Common carotid intima media thickness and lower extremity arterial atherosclerosis. The Rotterdam Study.Arterioscler Thromb. 1994; 14: 1885-1891
- Combined oestrogen-progestin replacement therapy prevents atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women.Maturitas. 1995; 21: 179-187
- Collagen in the physiology and pathology of connective tissue.(ch 4)in: Fischer, Stuttgart1978: 59
- Dietary fat intake and carotid artery wall thickness: the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC).Am J Epidemiol. 1994; 139: 979-989
- Health based reference values of the Mini Health Survey 2. Cholesterol in total serum and different lipoprotein fractions.Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1994; 5: 33-42
- The lowering of lipoprotein(a) induced by estrogen plus progesterone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women.Arch Intern Med. 1993; 153: 1462-1468
- Anderson JR Muir's textbook of Pathology. Edward Arnold, London1982: 363 (ch. 14)
- Pulsatillty index in carotid artery in relation to transdermal oestradiol and time since menopause.Lancet. 1991; ii: 839-842
- Use of hormone replacement therapy by Melbourne women.Aust J Public Health. 1995; 19: 387-392
- Regional difference in arterial low density lipoprotein in surgically postmenopausal cynomologous monkeys. Effects of oestrogen and progesterone replacement therapy.Arterioscler-Thromb. 1992; 12: 717-726
Accepted: January 17, 1997
Received in revised form: January 9, 1997
Received: September 30, 1996
© 1997 Published by Elsevier Inc.