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Depression after menopause and the use of menopausal hormone therapy

  • Irene Lambrinoudaki
    Affiliations
    Menopause Unit, Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aretaieio Hospital, Athens, Greece
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  • Eleni Armeni
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Fleet Road 88, NW3 2QT London, UK.
    Affiliations
    Menopause Unit, Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aretaieio Hospital, Athens, Greece

    Royal Free Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, University College London, Medical School, London, UK
    Search for articles by this author
      Perimenopause is a window of vulnerability for the development of mood disorders which involve both depressive symptoms or even episodes of depression. The experience of an episode of depression during perimenopause usually is a recurrence of prior depression rather than a new-onset depressive disorder [
      • Maki P.M.
      • Kornstein S.G.
      • Joffe H.
      • Bromberger J.T.
      • Freeman E.W.
      • Athappilly G.
      • Bobo W.V.
      • Rubin L.H.
      • Koleva H.K.
      • Cohen L.S.
      • Soares C.N.
      Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of perimenopausal depression: summary and recommendations.
      ]. The risk for depression decreases within two to four years after the last menstrual period, especially for women with no previous history of depression. During perimenopause, the use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) may improve depressive symptoms [
      • Maki P.M.
      • Kornstein S.G.
      • Joffe H.
      • Bromberger J.T.
      • Freeman E.W.
      • Athappilly G.
      • Bobo W.V.
      • Rubin L.H.
      • Koleva H.K.
      • Cohen L.S.
      • Soares C.N.
      Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of perimenopausal depression: summary and recommendations.
      ,
      • Stute P.
      • Spyropoulou A.
      • Karageorgiou V.
      • Cano A.
      • Bitzer J.
      • Ceausu I.
      • Chedraui P.
      • Durmusoglu F.
      • Erkkola R.
      • Goulis D.G.
      • Hirschberg A.Lindén
      • Kiesel L.
      • Lopes P.
      • Pines A.
      • Rees M.
      • van Trotsenburg M.
      • Zervas I.
      • Lambrinoudaki I.
      Management of depressive symptoms in peri- and postmenopausal women: EMAS position statement.
      ].

      Keywords

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