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The benefits of physical activity in middle-aged individuals for cardiovascular disease outcomes

  • Hira Shakoor
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutrition and Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain 15551, United Arab Emirates
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  • Carine Platat
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutrition and Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain 15551, United Arab Emirates
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  • Habiba I. Ali
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutrition and Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain 15551, United Arab Emirates
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  • Leila Cheikh Ismail
    Affiliations
    Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Department, College of Health Sciences, Research Institute of Medical and Health Sciences (RIMHS), University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, United Arab Emirates

    Nuffield Department of Women's & Reproductive Health, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK
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  • Ayesha Salem Al Dhaheri
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutrition and Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain 15551, United Arab Emirates
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  • Marijan Bosevski
    Affiliations
    University Cardiology Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, Stt.Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, Macedonia
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  • Vasso Apostolopoulos
    Affiliations
    Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Werribee campus, Melbourne, VIC 3030, Australia

    Immunology Program, Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Science (AIMSS), Melbourne, VIC 3021, Australia
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  • Lily Stojanovska
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Department of Nutrition and Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain 15551, United Arab Emirates.
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutrition and Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain 15551, United Arab Emirates

    Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Werribee campus, Melbourne, VIC 3030, Australia
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      Highlights

      • Due to a trend toward a more sedentary lifestyle, the middle-aged population (35–65 years) is at greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
      • Physical activity can prevent the initiation and progression of cardiovascular disease in middle-aged adults.
      • To prevent cardiovascular disease, the general recommendation is for at least 150 min of physical activity per week at a moderate level of intensity.
      • The type of physical activity should be adapted to the fitness level and medical condition of the individual.
      • Standardized guidelines for middle-aged individuals with cardiovascular events still need to be established.

      Abstract

      Regular physical activity (PA) has a positive role in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Due to a trend toward a more sedentary lifestyle, the middle-aged population (35–65 years) is at greater risk of developing CVD. It is well established that PA improves cardiorespiratory fitness and reduces the risk of cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular events, including stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and blood pressure. PA can potentially decrease oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, which are the two main underlying mechanisms leading to CVD. By reducing CRP, TNF-α, INF-γ, NF-κB and increasing IL-10, IL-4, and IL-8, PA can prevent the initiation and progression of CVD in middle-aged adults, highlighting the importance of being physically active for this age group. The general recommendation for PA to prevent CVD is at least 150 min/week at a moderate level of intensity; the type of PA should be adapted to the fitness level and medical condition of the individual. However, standardized guidelines for middle-aged individuals with cardiovascular events still need to be established.

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