Strategies to improve health status among adults with multimorbidity: A scoping review

  • Kathryn Nicholson
    Corresponding author at: Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, 1151 Richmond Street, London N6A 3K7, Ontario, Canada.
    Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, Canada
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  • Tatjana T. Makovski
    Department of Epidemiology, Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI), Maastricht University, the Netherlands
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  • Iveta Nagyova
    Department of Social and Behavioural Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, PJ Safarik University, Kosice, Slovakia
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  • Marjan van den Akker
    Institute of General Practice, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Germany

    Department of Family Medicine, Care and Public Health Research Institute, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands

    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Academic Centre of General Practice, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
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  • Saverio Stranges
    Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, Canada

    Department of Precision Health, Luxembourg Institute of Health, Strassen, Luxembourg
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Published:September 13, 2022DOI:


      • The prevention of further chronic conditions amidst multimorbidity is necessary.
      • Fourteen interventions were identified as addressing this need, and they had varying results.
      • Ten studies included physical activity and healthy eating to improve health status.
      • Eleven studies also used a combination of components to enhance successful outcomes.
      • Further research on interventions can help support those living with multimorbidity.


      Although public health and medical care advancements have enabled an increased lifespan among many populations around the world, there is an ongoing need to enhance the health span of adults and older adults. Due to the increasingly substantial prevalence of multiple chronic conditions, also known as multimorbidity, this scoping review aims to identify and describe the current literature on programs or interventions to improve the health status of and to prevent further chronic conditions among adults and older adults who are already living with multimorbidity. Of the 2898 articles identified from a search of PubMed and Embase, 72 underwent full-text screening and 14 were included in the review. A total of 8 articles included both adult and older adult participants, while 6 articles involved only participants who were older adults. The articles reported a variety of settings, components and key outcomes, and reported varying degrees of success in improving the health status of the participants. Some of the interventions were tailored to a specific population such as individuals receiving home care services, nursing home residents or individuals who were living with obesity along with multiple co-occurring conditions. While many interventions involved dimensions of physical activity and healthy eating to improve health status, many interventions also utilized a combination of components to enhance the impact of the initiative. Overall, this scoping review highlights the literature and the continued need for multifaceted research that can help inform future programs and policies to support individuals living with multimorbidity.


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