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Occupational hazards and the onset of natural menopause

  • Author Footnotes
    1 Linjuan Ma and Tongyun Qi contributed equally to this work and shared first authorship.
    Linjuan Ma
    Footnotes
    1 Linjuan Ma and Tongyun Qi contributed equally to this work and shared first authorship.
    Affiliations
    Department of Gynecology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310006, Zhejiang, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Linjuan Ma and Tongyun Qi contributed equally to this work and shared first authorship.
    Tongyun Qi
    Footnotes
    1 Linjuan Ma and Tongyun Qi contributed equally to this work and shared first authorship.
    Affiliations
    Department of Gynecology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310006, Zhejiang, China

    Department of Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310003, Zhejiang, China
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  • Yue Zhang
    Affiliations
    Department of Gynecology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310006, Zhejiang, China
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  • Yizhou Huang
    Affiliations
    Department of Gynecology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310006, Zhejiang, China
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  • Saisai Li
    Affiliations
    Department of Gynecology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310006, Zhejiang, China
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  • Qian Ying
    Affiliations
    Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022, Zhejiang, China
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  • Zhaoqiang Jiang
    Affiliations
    School of Pulic Health, Hangzhou Medical Colledge, Hangzhou 310013, Zhejiang, China
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  • Chunming Li
    Affiliations
    Department of Gynecology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310006, Zhejiang, China
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  • Peiqiong Chen
    Affiliations
    Department of Gynecology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310006, Zhejiang, China
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  • Wenxian Xu
    Affiliations
    Department of Gynecology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310006, Zhejiang, China
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  • Yibing Lan
    Affiliations
    Department of Gynecology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310006, Zhejiang, China
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  • Ketan Chu
    Affiliations
    Department of Gynecology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310006, Zhejiang, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    2 Jianhong Zhou, Wenlan Yu, and Jianlin Lou served as corresponding authors.
    Jianlin Lou
    Footnotes
    2 Jianhong Zhou, Wenlan Yu, and Jianlin Lou served as corresponding authors.
    Affiliations
    School of Pulic Health, Hangzhou Medical Colledge, Hangzhou 310013, Zhejiang, China

    School of Medicine, and The First Affiliated Hospital, Huzhou University, Huzhou 313000, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    2 Jianhong Zhou, Wenlan Yu, and Jianlin Lou served as corresponding authors.
    Wenlan Yu
    Footnotes
    2 Jianhong Zhou, Wenlan Yu, and Jianlin Lou served as corresponding authors.
    Affiliations
    National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    2 Jianhong Zhou, Wenlan Yu, and Jianlin Lou served as corresponding authors.
    Jianhong Zhou
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Department of Gynecology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 1 Xueshi Rd, Hangzhou 310006, Zhejiang, China.
    Footnotes
    2 Jianhong Zhou, Wenlan Yu, and Jianlin Lou served as corresponding authors.
    Affiliations
    Department of Gynecology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310006, Zhejiang, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Linjuan Ma and Tongyun Qi contributed equally to this work and shared first authorship.
    2 Jianhong Zhou, Wenlan Yu, and Jianlin Lou served as corresponding authors.
Published:September 02, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2022.08.012

      Highlights

      • Menopause is a turning point in the reproductive life span and in physical aging.
      • Abnormal workloads and exposure to aromatic compounds and excessive noise were the three occupational hazards most frequently self-reported by participants in this survey of Chinese working women.
      • Occupational noise might be a risk factor for accelerating the onset of menopause.

      Abstract

      Objective

      To identify occupational hazards associated with earlier onset of natural menopause.

      Study design

      A national cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the reproductive health of Chinese female workers. The final sample size was 17,948.

      Main outcome measures

      Participants completed a self-report instrument that recorded working conditions, chemical and physical agents in the occupational environment, socioeconomic factors, lifestyle, reproductive history, and occupational information. A Cox regression model was used to examine the association between each occupational hazard and onset of menopause.

      Results

      Abnormal workload (19.31 %), aromatic compounds (7.95 %), and noise (24.94 %) were the three most frequently self-reported occupational hazards in the three categories of working conditions, chemical agents, and physical agents, respectively. Abnormal workload (HR = 1.133, p = 0.038), noise (HR = 1.233, p < 0.001), and heat stress (HR = 1.178, p = 0.041) were associated with earlier age at natural menopause in the analyses of each hazard, after adjustment. Only noise (HR = 1.187, p = 0.003) remained statistically significant after including all possible occupational hazards.

      Conclusions

      In a national survey of 17,948 female workers, this study investigated the association of age at natural menopause with multiple occupational hazards, some of which have not been addressed. Occupational noise was identified as a risk factor for reproductive senescence for the first time. However, further research is needed to confirm our findings.

      Graphical abstract

      Keywords

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