Prevalence of post-menopausal depression and associated factors: A web-based cross-sectional study in Greece


      • More than one out of four post-menopausal women in Greece were screen-positive for depression based on the BDI–II.
      • Smoking, age, unemployment and a history of depression were associated with a higher risk of post-menopausal depression.
      • Early post-menopause is highly critical for the emergence of depressive symptoms.
      • Lack of health insurance and obesity are also associated with a greater risk of severe post-menopausal depression.



      The impact of depression on post-menopausal women is an important public health issue but remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of post-menopausal depression in Greece and outline the profile of the women it affects.

      Study design

      A sample of post-menopausal women completed an anonymous, self-administered, web-based survey which included the Beck Depression Inventory-ΙΙ (BDI-II) and questions regarding socio-demographic data.

      Main outcome measures

      The dependent variable of interest was a BDI-II score ≥ 20 (the cut-off for moderate depression according to the BDI).


      Overall, 502 post-menopausal women participated in the study. The median BDI-II score was 13 (range 0–50); 136 (27.1%) of the women scored ≥ 20 and were considered screen-positive for depression. According to the multivariate logistic regression model, age< 55 years (OR: 1.621; 95% CI: 1.036–2.535), not working (OR: 1.580; 95% CI: 1.013–2.465), smoking (OR: 1.656; 95% CI: 1.081–2.536) and history of depression (OR: 1.650; 95% CI: 1.045–2.604) were independently associated with post-menopausal depression. Subgroup analyses revealed that current smokers (OR: 2.514; 95% CI: 1.485–4.256) had higher odds of moderate depression, while obesity (OR: 2.455; 95% CI: 1.206–4.996), absence of healthcare insurance (OR: 4.413; 95% CI: 1.970–9.887) and a history of depression (OR: 2.253; 95% CI: 1.212–4.190) were identified as independent risk factors for severe post-menopausal depression.


      More than one out of four post-menopausal women were screen-positive for symptoms indicative of depression, while a personal history of depression, age < 55 years, smoking and current working status were independent predictors of its emergence.


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