- •The relationships between reproductive lifespan and incident metabolic diseases are unclear.
- •This systematic review found that a short reproductive lifespan is associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, with a 6–15% higher risk for a one-year decrease in reproductive lifespan.
- •It remains to be seen what factors mediate this effect of reproductive lifespan on the risk of incident metabolic diseases across adulthood.
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
- Diabetes Fact sheet.WHO, Geneva2016 (Available from:)(accessed January 12, 2021)
Bloch MJ. Worldwide prevalence of hypertension exceeds 1.3 billion. 2016;10(10):753.
Stanaway JD, Afshin A, Gakidou E, Lim SS, Abate D, Abate KH, et al. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. 2018;392(10159):1923–94.
- Global Report on Diabetes.World Health Organization, Geneva2016 (Available from:)(accessed January 14, 2021)
Mills KT, Bundy JD, Kelly TN, Reed JE, Kearney PM, Reynolds K, et al. Global disparities of hypertension prevalence and control: a systematic analysis of population-based studies from 90 countries. 2016;134(6):441–50.
- Hypertension and its treatment in postmenopausal women: baseline data from the Women's Health Initiative.Hypertension. 2000; 36: 780-789
- Effect of age at menopause on blood pressure in postmenopausal women.Am. J. Hypertension. 2007; 20: 1045-1050
- Diet, lifestyle, and genetic risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a review from the Nurses’ Health Study, Nurses’ Health Study 2, and Health Professionals’ Follow-up Study.Curr. Nutrit. reports. 2014; 3: 345-354
- Globalization of diabetes: the role of diet, lifestyle, and genes.Diabetes Care. 2011; 34: 1249-1257
- Systematic review and meta-analysis of age at menarche and risk of type 2 diabetes.Acta Diabetol. 2014; 51: 519-528
- Associations between age at menarche and menopause with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis in Chinese women.J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metabol. 2013; 98: 1612-1621
- Age at menarche and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from 2 large prospective cohort studies.Am. J. Epidemiol. 2009; 171: 334-344
- Age at menarche and incidence of diabetes: a prospective study of 300,000 women in China.Am. J. Epidemiol. 2017 Feb 1; 187: 190-198
- Age at menarche is associated with prediabetes and diabetes in women (aged 32–81 years) from the general population: the KORA F4 Study.Diabetologia. 2012; 55: 681-688
- Age at menopause, reproductive life span, and type 2 diabetes risk.Diabetes Care. 2013; 36: 1012-1019
- Menstrual and reproductive factors and type 2 diabetes risk: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.J. Diabetes Investigat. 2019 Jan; 10: 147-153
- Bilateral oophorectomy and the risk of incident diabetes in postmenopausal women.Diabetes Care. 2014; 37: 725-733
- The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration.PLoS Med. 2009; 6e1000100
- The Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) for Assessing the Quality of Nonrandomized Studies in Meta-Analysis.The Ottawa Health Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario2011 (Available from:)(accessed March 6, 2020)
- Reproductive history and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women: findings from the Women's Health Initiative.Menopause. 2017; 24: 64-72
- Reproductive factors and risk of type 2 diabetes in an occupational cohort of Chinese women.J. Diabetes Complicat. 2016; 30: 1217-1222
- Effects of age at menarche, reproductive years, and menopause on metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.Atherosclerosis. 2008; 196: 590-597
- Age at menarche and its association with dysglycemia in Korean middle-aged women.Menopause (New York, NY). 2015; 22: 542
- Female reproductive history and risk of type 2 diabetes: A prospective analysis of 126 721 women.Diabet. Obesit. Metabol. 2018 Sep; 20: 2103-2112
- Early menarche is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in rural Chinese women and is partially mediated by BMI: the Henan Rural Cohort Study.Menopause (New York, NY). 2019 Nov 1; 26: 1265-1271
- Association between age at menarche and blood pressure in adulthood: is obesity an important mediator?.Hypertens. Res. 2018; 41: 856
- Mediation effect of BMI on the relationship between age at menarche and hypertension: the Henan Rural Cohort Study.J. Hum. Hypertens. 2020 Jun; 34: 448-456
- Age at menarche and Type 2 diabetes risk.Diabetes Care. 2013; 36: 3526-3534
- Age at natural menopause and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study.Diabetologia. 2017; 60: 1951-1960
- Age at period cessation and trajectories of cardiovascular risk factors across mid and later life.Heart. 2020; 106: 499-505
- Age at menopause, body mass index, and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal Chinese women: the Henan Rural Cohort Study.Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 2020 Jul 24; 30: 1347-1354
- Mediatory role of abdominal obesity in the association of early menopause with diabetes among middle-aged and older Chinese women.Menopause. 2020; 27: 1037-1041
- Duration of reproductive life span, age at menarche, and age at menopause are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease in women.J. Am. Heart Assoc. 2017 Nov 2; 6e006713
Mishra SR, Chung H-F, Waller M, Dobson AJ, Greenwood DC, Cade JE, et al. Association between reproductive life span and incident nonfatal cardiovascular disease: a pooled analysis of individual patient data from 12 studies. 2020;5(12):1410–8.
- Age at menarche and natural menopause and number of reproductive years in association with mortality: results from a median follow-up of 11.2 years among 31,955 naturally menopausal Chinese women.PLoS One. 2014; 9e103673
- Early menarche and blood pressure in adulthood: systematic review and meta-analysis.J. Public Health. 2018 Sep 1; 40: 476-484
- Unraveling the associations of age and menopause with cardiovascular risk factors in a large population-based study.BMC Med. 2017; 15: 2
- Lack of influence of menopause on blood pressure and cardiovascular risk profile: a 16-year longitudinal study concerning a cohort of 568 women.J. Hypertens. 1996; 14: 729-736
- Age at Menarche and cardiometabolic risk in adulthood: the coronary artery risk development in young adults study.J. Pediatr. 2015; 167 (e1): 344-352
- Early menarche is associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in premenopausal Korean women.Eur. J. Pediatr. 2016; 175: 97-104
- Association of age at menarche with metabolic syndrome and its components in rural Bangladeshi women.Nutrit. Metabol. 2012; 9: 99
- Puberty timing associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and also diverse health outcomes in men and women: the UK Biobank study.Sci. Rep. 2015; 5: 11208
- Menopause and hypertension: an age-old debate.Hypertension. 2008; 51: 952-959
- Age of menarche and the metabolic syndrome in China.Epidemiology. 2007; 18: 740-746
- Oestrogens and insulin secretion.Diabetologia. 2005; 48: 2213-2220
- Effect of oestrogen plus progestin on the incidence of diabetes in postmenopausal women: results from the Women's Health Initiative Hormone Trial.Diabetologia. 2004; 47: 1175-1187
- Hormone therapy for the primary prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal women: an evidence review for the US preventive services task force.JAMA. 2017 Dec 12; 318: 2234-2249
- Menopausal hormone therapy and health outcomes during the intervention and extended poststopping phases of the Women's Health Initiative randomized trials.JAMA. 2013; 310: 1353-1368
- Novel mechanisms responsible for postmenopausal hypertension.Hypertension. 2004; 43: 918-923
- Women's health in menopause with a focus on hypertension.Netherlands Heart J.. 2009; 17: 68-72
- Age at menarche, abnormal glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Rancho Bernardo Study.Climacteric. 2005; 8: 76-82
- Association between age at menarche and gestational diabetes mellitus: the Australian longitudinal study on Women's Health.Am. J. Epidemiol. 2017; 185: 554-561
- Early age at menarche and gestational diabetes mellitus risk: Results from the Healthy Baby Cohort study.Diabetes Metab. 2017 Jun 1; 43: 248-252
- Early menopause and premature ovarian insufficiency are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Eur. J. Endocrinol. 2019 Jan 1; 180: 41-50
Mishra SR, Chung HF, Waller M, Mishra GD. Duration of estrogen exposure during reproductive years, age at menarche and age at Menopause, and risk of cardiovascular disease events, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2021;128(5):809–21.
Mishra SR, Waller M, Chung H-F, Mishra GD. Association of the length of oestrogen exposure with risk of incident stroke in postmenopausal women: Insights from a 20-year prospective study. 2021;328:206–14.
- Accuracy of recall by middle-aged participants in a longitudinal study of their body size and indices of maturation earlier in life.Ann. Hum. Biol. 1991; 18: 155-166