- •A sex–frailty paradox exists, where females tend to be more frail but live longer than males.
- •Frailty in ethnic minority women is likely exacerbated by health inequalities and other factors.
- •While the evidence on frailty in ethnic minority women is sparse and mostly from cross-sectional and cohort studies, we conclude that ethnic minority women are an extremely vulnerable group.
- •The biopsychosocial factors that are most likely to be influential in the development of frailty in ethnic minority women are not immutable, and culturally appropriate and targeted strategies have the potential to positively impact outcomes.
- •Efforts to impact the trajectory of frailty and vulnerability in ethnic minorities need to have a global-level and population-level approaches, and should incorporate individual-level interventions.
- •Future research should focus on understanding the impact of interventions across races and ethnicities.
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