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Population-based norms for the Cervantes-SF short-form questionnaire assessing health-related quality of life in menopause

  • Pluvio J. Coronado
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Instituto de Salud de la Mujer, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, C/ Prof. Martín Lagos, s/n, 28040, Madrid, Spain.
    Affiliations
    Instituto de Salud de la Mujer, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, IdISSC, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain
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  • Manuel Monroy
    Affiliations
    Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
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  • María Fasero
    Affiliations
    Servicio de Obstetricia y Ginecología, Hospital Sanitas La Zarzuela, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, Spain
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  • Rafael Sánchez-Borrego
    Affiliations
    Clínica DIATROS, Barcelona, Spain
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  • Santiago Palacios
    Affiliations
    Instituto Palacios de Salud y Medicina de la Mujer, Madrid, Spain
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  • Javier Rejas
    Affiliations
    Departamento de Farmacoeconomía e Investigación de Resultados en Salud, Pfizer SLU, Alcobendas, Madrid, Spain
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  • Miguel A. Ruiz
    Affiliations
    Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
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  • the AEEM collaborative group for the study of psychometric validation of the Cervantes Short-Form
    Author Footnotes
    1 The AEEM group responsible for the development of the Cervantes-SF is composed of: Pluvio J. Coronado (Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid), Rafael Sánchez-Borrego (Clínica DIATROS, Barcelona), Laura Baquedano (Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza), Sonia Sánchez (Hospital Sagrado Corazón, Barcelona), Cristina Argudo (Clínica Begoña, Gijón, Asturias), Micaela Fernández-Abellán (Clínica Quirón, Málaga), Silvia González (Gabinete Médico Velázquez, Madrid), Eva Iglesias (Hospital de Valme, Sevilla), Jackie Calleja (Clínica Quirón, Madrid), Jesus Presa (Hospital Clínico de Jaén), Alfonso Duque (Clinica Ruber, Madrid), Fernando Ruiz (Hospital Clínico Universitario, Valencia), Borja Otero (Hospital Universitario de Cruces, Baracaldo, Vizcaya), María Fasero (Hospital Sanitas La Zarzuela, Madrid), Plácido Llaneza (Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Gijón, Asturias) and Santiago Palacios (Instituto Palacios de Salud y Medicina de la Mujer, Madrid).
  • Author Footnotes
    1 The AEEM group responsible for the development of the Cervantes-SF is composed of: Pluvio J. Coronado (Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid), Rafael Sánchez-Borrego (Clínica DIATROS, Barcelona), Laura Baquedano (Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza), Sonia Sánchez (Hospital Sagrado Corazón, Barcelona), Cristina Argudo (Clínica Begoña, Gijón, Asturias), Micaela Fernández-Abellán (Clínica Quirón, Málaga), Silvia González (Gabinete Médico Velázquez, Madrid), Eva Iglesias (Hospital de Valme, Sevilla), Jackie Calleja (Clínica Quirón, Madrid), Jesus Presa (Hospital Clínico de Jaén), Alfonso Duque (Clinica Ruber, Madrid), Fernando Ruiz (Hospital Clínico Universitario, Valencia), Borja Otero (Hospital Universitario de Cruces, Baracaldo, Vizcaya), María Fasero (Hospital Sanitas La Zarzuela, Madrid), Plácido Llaneza (Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Gijón, Asturias) and Santiago Palacios (Instituto Palacios de Salud y Medicina de la Mujer, Madrid).

      Highlights

      • The Cervantes-SF scale is designed to measure health-rate quality of life (HRQoL) in peri- and post-menopausal women.
      • HRQoL norms are a key attribute to interpret patient’s health either from a clinical perspective and health decision maker as well.
      • This work was designed to develop population norms for Cervantes-SF for the first time.
      • These results support the validity of the Cervantes-SF scale as valid instrument for measuring the impact of menopause on HRQOL.
      • The norms obtained facilitate the interpretation of these scores in clinical practice, research, and health management.

      Abstract

      Objectives

      To develop the population-based norms for the Cervantes-SF scale, which measures the impact of menopause on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of women in Spain.

      Methods

      We used a sample obtained from representative studies of the Spanish population according to geographic density and autonomous community. This sample was composed of 5,237 non- institutionalized peri- and post-menopausal women, aged 40−75 years. Measures of central tendency, dispersion and percentiles were calculated for the total score and its dimensions, in 11 three-year age categories. Construct validity was analyzed based on a comparison with known groups to confirm the validity of the normative scales.

      Results

      The norms show a monotonic gradient, with an incremental impact on HRQOL as age increases, as shown by an increase in the total score and each of the dimensions. Fifty percent of women showed that peri-/post-menopausal symptomatology interfered with HRQOL > 39 %, ranging from 25 % (40−44 years) to 47 % (72−75 years). The population norms showed significant differences between groups according to generic HRQOL, number of comorbidities, history of osteoporotic fracture, educational level, and presence of obesity.

      Conclusions

      These results support the validity of the population-based norms for the Cervantes-SF scale, a valid instrument for measuring the impact of menopause on HRQOL in Spain. The norms obtained facilitate the interpretation of these scores in clinical practice, research, and health management.

      Abbreviations:

      AC (Autonomous Communities), Cervantes-SF (Cervantes scale sort form), CI (confidence interval), ES (effect size), HRQOL (health-related quality of life), MID (minimal important difference), PRO (patient-reported health outcomes), SEM (standard error of measurement)

      Keywords

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