- •Poor sleep quality is independently associated with both abdominal and general obesity.
- •Depression is an independent predictor of sarcopenia.
- •Short sleep duration is independently related to both general and sarcopenic obesity.
To analyze the association of depression and the quality and duration of sleep with general and abdominal obesity, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity (SO) in Spanish middle-aged and older adults.
Study design and outcome measures
A total of 304 people (mean age 72.04 ± 7.88 years, 83.88 % women) participated in this study. Body mass index, waist circumference, skeletal muscle mass index (bioelectrical impedance analysis), and hand-grip strength were used to evaluate sarcopenia, obesity, and SO. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to evaluate sleep quality. Sleep duration (hours) was categorized as either short (<6), normal (6–8), or long (>8). Depression was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale), nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment Survey) and physical activity (PA) level (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form) were also assessed. Independent associations were evaluated by multivariate logistic regressions.
Only depression was associated with sarcopenia (OR = 1.10, 95 % CI = 1.02−1.19). Poorer sleep quality (OR = 1.06, 95 % CI = 1.06−1.11) and short sleep duration (OR = 2.63, 95 % CI = 1.45−4.78) were related to general obesity, as well as fatigue and low PA level. Poor sleep latency (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI = 1.09−1.87) was linked to abdominal obesity, along with fatigue, low PA level, older age, and female sex. Finally, short sleep duration (OR = 5.25, 95 % CI = 1.97−14.00), together with fatigue, low PA level, and male sex were associated with OS.
Among Spanish middle-aged and older adults, after adjusting for potential confounding variables, depression was uniquely associated with sarcopenia, while short sleep duration was related to general and sarcopenic obesity, and poor sleep quality was linked to general and abdominal obesity.
Abbreviations:BIA (Bioelectrical impedance analysis), BMI (Body Mass Index), EWGSOP2 (European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People-2), HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), SM (Skeletal Muscle Mass), SMI (Skeletal Muscle Mass Index), SO (Sarcopenic Obesity), WC (Waist Circumference)
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Published online: July 01, 2020
Accepted: June 23, 2020
Received in revised form: April 28, 2020
Received: October 18, 2019
© 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.