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Mediterranean diet, tobacco consumption and body composition during perimenopause. The FLAMENCO project

  • M. Flor-Alemany
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Department of Physiology. School of Pharmacy, Campus Universitario de Cartuja s/n., Granada, 18071, Spain.
    Affiliations
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INYTA), Biomedical Research Centre (CIBM), University of Granada, Spain

    Sport and Health University Research Institute (IMUDS), Granada, Spain
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  • N. Marín-Jiménez
    Affiliations
    Sport and Health University Research Institute (IMUDS), Granada, Spain

    Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Spain
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  • T. Nestares
    Affiliations
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INYTA), Biomedical Research Centre (CIBM), University of Granada, Spain
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  • M. Borges-Cosic
    Affiliations
    Sport and Health University Research Institute (IMUDS), Granada, Spain

    Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Spain
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  • P. Aranda
    Affiliations
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INYTA), Biomedical Research Centre (CIBM), University of Granada, Spain

    Sport and Health University Research Institute (IMUDS), Granada, Spain
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  • V.A. Aparicio
    Affiliations
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INYTA), Biomedical Research Centre (CIBM), University of Granada, Spain

    Sport and Health University Research Institute (IMUDS), Granada, Spain
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      Highlights

      • Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with a higher gynoid/total fat ratio.
      • Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with a lower android/gynoid fat ratio.
      • Intakes of nuts, fruits, pulses and dairy products were associated with a lower body mass index.
      • Intakes of wholegrains, fruits, dairy and olive oil were associated with a lower waist circumference.
      • Smokers showed a lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet.

      Abstract

      Objective

      To study the association of the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and tobacco consumption with body composition during perimenopause.

      Study design and methods

      A cross-sectional study in 176 perimenopausal women from the FLAMENCO project. A food frequency questionnaire and the Mediterranean Diet Score were assessed. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

      Main outcomes measures

      Body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), ratio of gynecoid to total fat mass (G/T), ratio of android to gynecoid fat mass (A/G), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and waist circumference (WC).

      Results

      Intake of whole-grain cereals was associated with lower WC, FM percentage, android FM, VAT and higher G/T (all p < 0.05). Intake of nuts was associated with lower BMI and FM percentage and intake of fruits with lower BMI, WC, total and android FM, FM percentage, A/G, VAT and higher G/T (all p < 0.05). Intake of pulses was associated with lower weight, BMI and android FM. Intake of whole dairy products was associated with lower weight, BMI, WC, total and android FM and VAT (all p < 0.05). Intake of olive oil was associated with lower WC and FM percentage (all p < 0.05). Intake of sweetened beverages was associated with higher weight, BMI, WC, FM percentage, android FM, VAT and total FM (all, p < 0.05). Smokers had a lower MD adherence (p < 0.05). Finally, a greater MD adherence was associated with higher G/T (p < 0.01) and lower A/G (p < 0.05).

      Conclusions

      A higher MD adherence, avoiding tobacco, an increased consumption of whole-grain cereals, nuts, fruits, pulses, whole dairy products and olive oil, and a lower consumption of sweetened beverages might contribute to a healthier body composition during perimenopause.

      Abbreviations:

      A/G (ratio of android to gynecoid fat mass), BMI (body mass index), CVD (cardiovascular disease), DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), FM (fat mass), G/T (ratio of gynecoid to total fat mass), MD (Mediterranean Diet), VAT (visceral adipose tissue), WC (waist circumference)

      Keywords

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