- •This is the first meta-analysis evaluating the association between age of menopause and the risk of developing arterial hypertension (AH).
- •Women entering menopause at an age <45 years exert an increased risk of developing AH compared with those of normal age of menopause.
- •This association does not seem to be affected by potential confounding factors predisposing to AH, such as age, body mass index and smoking.
Menopausal transition has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), mainly attributed to atherogenic dyslipidaemia, central obesity and insulin resistance. Whether arterial hypertension (AH) also contributes to menopause-associated CVD is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate and meta-analyze the best available evidence regarding the association between early menopause (EM) and AH risk.
A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, CENTRAL and Scopus databases, up to January 20th, 2020. Data were expressed as odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). The I2 index was employed for heterogeneity.
Ten studies were included in the quantitative analysis (273,994 postmenopausal women, 76853 cases with AH). Women with EM (age at menopause <45 years) were at higher AH risk compared with those of normal age at menopause (>45 years) (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.01–1.19, p = 0.03; I2 79 %). The direction or the magnitude of this association remained significant when the analysis was restricted to studies including groups matched for potential confounders, such as age, BMI, smoking or the use of menopausal hormone therapy or oral contraceptives.
Women with EM have an increased risk for AH compared with those of normal age at menopause.
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Published online: March 17, 2020
Accepted: March 11, 2020
Received in revised form: February 13, 2020
Received: November 4, 2019
© 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.