Advertisement

Egg freezing and late motherhood

      Highlights

      • Egg freezing becomes increasingly popular among healthy women desiring to maintain their reproductive potential.
      • Among egg freezing technologies, vitrification is the current method of choice, due to its high effectiveness.
      • There is a negative association between age and ovarian reserve plus oocyte quality.
      • The reproductive outcomes following egg freezing appear to be promising.
      • Evidence-based decision-making should be sought, after discussing expectations, potential risks and adverse outcomes.

      Abstract

      Egg freezing was initially used as an intervention for iatrogenic ovarian insufficiency. Nowadays, it is not considered an experimental procedure, and it is increasingly popular among healthy women who wish to maintain their reproductive potential (fertility preservation). This review summarises the evidence on egg freezing technology, reproductive outcomes and long-term effects, as well as its psychological and socioeconomic implications. Egg freezing technology is advancing, with vitrification being the current method of choice, due to its effectiveness. The reproductive outcomes following egg freezing appear to be promising, though the strong negative association with maternal age has to be taken into consideration. Unfortunately, data on long-term outcomes are missing, raising safety issues. Egg freezing has several socioeconomic implications involving health risks, as well as financial and psychological factors.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Maturitas
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Goldman K.N.
        Elective oocyte cryopreservation: an ounce of prevention?.
        Fertil. Steril. 2018; 109: 1014-1015https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.03.023
        • Yasmin E.
        • Balachandren N.
        • Davies M.C.
        • Jones G.L.
        • Lane S.
        • Mathur R.
        • Webber L.
        • Andersonon R.A.
        • Yasmin E.
        • Balachandren N.
        • Davies M.C.
        • Jones G.L.
        Fertility Preservation for Medical Reasons in Girls and Women : British Fertility Society Policy and Practice Guideline. 7273. 2018https://doi.org/10.1080/14647273.2017.1422297
        • Practice Committees of American Society for Reproductive M
        • Society for Assisted Reproductive T
        Mature oocyte cryopreservation : a guideline.
        Fertil. Steril. 2013; 99: 37-43https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.09.028
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        2015 Assisted Reproductive Technology National Summary Report.
        (n.d.) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta2017
        • Fritz R.
        • Jindal S.
        Reproductive aging and elective fertility preservation.
        J. Ovarian Res. 2018; 11: 66https://doi.org/10.1186/s13048-018-0438-4
        • Inhorn M.C.
        • Birenbaum-carmeli D.
        • Westphal L.M.
        • Doyle J.
        • Gleicher N.
        • Meirow D.
        • Dirnfeld M.
        • Seidman D.
        • Kahane A.
        • Patrizio P.
        Ten Pathways to Elective Egg Freezing : a Binational Analysis.
        2018
        • Greenwood E.A.
        • Pasch L.A.
        • Hastie J.
        • Cedars M.I.
        • Huddleston H.G.
        To freeze or not to freeze: decision regret and satisfaction following elective oocyte cryopreservation.
        Fertil. Steril. 2018; 109 (e1): 1097-1104https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.02.127
        • Yurchuk T.
        • Petrushko M.
        • Fuller B.
        Early human development science of cryopreservation in reproductive medicine – embryos and oocytes as exemplars.
        Early Hum. Dev. 2018; : 0-1https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2018.08.016
        • Jacob S.
        • Balen A.
        Oocyte freezing: reproductive panacea or false hope of family.
        Br. J. Hosp. Med. 2018; 79: 200-204https://doi.org/10.12968/hmed.2018.79.4.200
        • Rienzi L.
        • Gracia C.
        • Maggiulli R.
        • LaBarbera A.R.
        • Kaser D.J.
        • Ubaldi F.M.
        • Vanderpoel S.
        • Racowsky C.
        Oocyte, embryo and blastocyst cryopreservation in ART: systematic review and meta-analysis comparing slow-freezing versus vitrification to produce evidence for the development of global guidance.
        Hum. Reprod. Update. 2017; 23: 139-155https://doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dmw038
        • Loutradi K.E.
        • Kolibianakis E.M.
        • Venetis C.A.
        • Papanikolaou E.G.
        • Pados G.
        • Bontis I.
        • Tarlatzis B.C.
        Cryopreservation of human embryos by vitrification or slow freezing: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Fertil. Steril. 2008; 90: 186-193https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2007.06.010
        • Smith G.D.
        • Ph D.
        • Serafini P.C.
        • Ph D.
        • Fioravanti J.
        • Yadid I.
        • Paulo S.
        Prospective randomized comparison of human oocyte cryopreservation with slow-rate freezing or vitrification.
        Fertil. Steril. 2010; 94: 2088-2095https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.12.065
        • Youm H.S.
        • Choi J.R.
        • Oh D.
        • Rho Y.H.
        Survival rates in closed and open vitrification for human mature oocyte cryopreservation: a meta-analysis.
        Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 2018; 83: 268-274https://doi.org/10.1159/000484243
        • Crawford S.
        • Boulet S.L.
        • Kawwass J.F.
        • Jamieson D.J.
        • Kissin D.M.
        Cryopreserved oocyte versus fresh oocyte assisted reproductive technology cycles, United States, 2013.
        Fertil. Steril. 2017; 107: 110-118https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2016.10.002
        • Seshadri S.
        • Saab W.
        • Exeter H.
        • Drew E.
        • Petrie A.
        • Davies M.
        • Serhal P.
        Clinical outcomes of a vitri fi ed donor oocyte programme : a single UK centre experience.
        Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 2018; 225: 136-140
        • Chian R.C.
        • Huang J.Y.J.
        • Gilbert L.
        • Son W.Y.
        • Holzer H.
        • Cui S.J.
        • Buckett W.M.
        • Tulandi T.
        • Tan S.L.
        Obstetric outcomes following vitrification of in vitro and in vivo matured oocytes.
        Fertil. Steril. 2009; 91: 2391-2398https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.04.014
        • Cohen Y.
        • St-Onge-St-Hilaire A.
        • Tannus S.
        • Younes G.
        • Dahan M.H.
        • Buckett W.
        • Son W.Y.
        Decreased pregnancy and live birth rates after vitrification of in vitro matured oocytes.
        J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 2018; : 1-7https://doi.org/10.1007/s10815-018-1216-3
        • Mohsenzadeh M.
        • Salehi-Abargouei A.
        • Tabibnejad N.
        • Karimi-Zarchi M.
        • Khalili M.A.
        Effect of vitrification on human oocyte maturation rate during in vitro maturation procedure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Cryobiology. 2018; 83: 84-89https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cryobiol.2018.05.003
        • Balkenende E.M.E.
        • Dahhan T.
        • Van Der Veen F.
        • Repping S.
        • Goddijn M.
        Reproductive outcomes after oocyte banking for fertility preservation.
        Reprod. Biomed. Online. 2018; 37: 425-433https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rbmo.2018.07.005
        • Goldman R.H.
        • Racowsky C.
        • Farland L.V.
        • Munné S.
        • Ribustello L.
        • Fox J.H.
        Predicting the likelihood of live birth for elective oocyte cryopreservation: a counseling tool for physicians and patients.
        Hum. Reprod. 2017; 32: 853-859https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dex008
        • Mesen T.B.
        • Mersereau J.E.
        • Kane J.B.
        • Ph D.
        Optimal timing for elective egg freezing.
        Fertil. Steril. 2019; (n.d.)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.03.002
        • Kopeika J.
        • Thornhill A.
        • Khalaf Y.
        The effect of cryopreservation on the genome of gametes and embryos: principles of cryobiology and critical appraisal of the evidence.
        Hum. Reprod. Update. 2015; 21: 209-227https://doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dmu063
        • Cutting R.
        • Barlow S.
        • Anderson R.
        Human oocyte cryopreservation: evidence for practice.
        Hum. Fertil. 2009; 12: 125-136https://doi.org/10.1080/14647270903132115
      1. SART National Summary Report.
        2019 (Available from: https://www.sartcorsonline.com/rptCSR_PublicMultYear.aspx?reportingYear=2016 Accessed 08/01/2019)
        • Rebar R.W.
        Social and ethical implications of fertility preservation.
        Fertil. Steril. 2016; 105: 2015-2017https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2016.02.002
        • Argyle C.E.
        • Harper J.C.
        • Davies M.C.
        Oocyte cryopreservation: Where are we now?.
        Hum. Reprod. Update. 2016; 22: 440-449https://doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dmw007
        • Inhorn M.C.
        • Birenbaum-Carmeli D.
        • Westphal L.M.
        • Doyle J.
        • Gleicher N.
        • Meirow D.
        • Raanani H.
        • Dirnfeld M.
        • Patrizio P.
        Medical egg freezing: how cost and lack of insurance cover impact women and their families.
        Reprod. Biomed. Soc. Online. 2018; 5: 82-92https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rbms.2017.12.001
        • Milman L.W.
        • Senapati S.
        • Sammel M.D.
        • Sc D.
        Assessing reproductive choices of women and the likelihood of oocyte cryopreservation in the era of elective oocyte freezing.
        Fertil. Steril. 2017; 107 (e3): 1214-1222https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2017.03.010
        • Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine
        Planned oocyte cryopreservation for women seeking to preserve future reproductive potential: an ethics committee opinion.
        Fertil. Steril. 2018; 110: 1022-1028https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.08.027