Research Article| Volume 121, P41-47, March 2019

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The association of urinary estrogen levels with urinary isoflavone levels: Difference between premenopausal women and postmenopausal women


      • Women with a high frequency of soy food intake had high urinary isoflavone levels.
      • Urinary isoflavone level did not affect urinary estrogen level in premenopausal women.
      • Postmenopausal women with a high urinary isoflavone level had high estrogen levels.


      Results of studies on the associations of soy food intake with urinary estrogen levels in premenopausal women and in postmenopausal women have been inconsistent. We examined the associations of urinary isoflavone levels as well as soy food intake with estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2) in pre- and postmenopausal women. In addition, we compared the levels of isoflavones, E1 and E2 across current hormone users such as those receiving hormone replacement therapy and those using oral contraceptives and non-users among both pre- and postmenopausal women. Urinary levels of isoflavones, E1 and E2 in 498 women (36 hormone users and 462 non-users) were analyzed. Premenopausal women with a higher frequency of soy food intake had higher urinary isoflavone levels, but there were no significant associations between E1 and E2 levels and urinary isoflavone levels. Levels of E1 and E2 in hormone users were significantly lower than those in hormone non-users among premenopausal women, but levels of E1 and E2 in hormone users were significantly higher than those in hormone non-users among postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women with a higher frequency of soy food intake had higher urinary isoflavone levels, and postmenopausal women with high urinary isoflavone levels had significantly higher E1 and E2 levels. In conclusion, the associations of urinary isoflavone levels with urinary estrogen levels differed with menopausal status. Urinary levels of E1 and E2 were high in postmenopausal women with high urinary isoflavone levels but not in premenopausal women with high urinary isoflavone levels.


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