Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM), also known as vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA), is a progressive condition well known to clinicians who care for menopausal women. Such clinicians recognize that while GSM adversely affects quality of life, including sexual function, in nearly half of midlife and older women, most such women are neither diagnosed with nor treated for this condition. Symptoms characteristic of GSM include vaginal dryness, genital pruritis, dyspareunia, urinary urgency/frequency and an elevated risk of urinary tract infections, all of which are likely to persist or progress without treatment [
Management of symptomatic vulvovaginal atrophy 2013 position statement of The North American Menopause Society.
Menopause. 2013; 20: 888-902
The 2017 hormone therapy position statement of The North American Menopause Society.
Menopause. 2017; 24: 728-753
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- (a)Management of symptomatic vulvovaginal atrophy 2013 position statement of The North American Menopause Society.Menopause. 2013; 20: 888-902
- (b)The 2017 hormone therapy position statement of The North American Menopause Society.Menopause. 2017; 24: 728-753
- Non-hormonal topical treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy: an up-to-date overview.Climacteric. 2013; 16: 305-312
- The 2017 hormone therapy position statement of the North American Menopause Society.Menopause. 2017; 24: 728-753
- Prices Keep Rising for Drugs Treating Painful Sex in Women.(June 3) New York Times, 2018https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/03/health/vagina-womens-health-drug-prices.html?smid=fb-nytimes&smtyp=cur
- A vaginal estradiol softgel capsule, TX-004HR, has negligible to very low systemic absorption of estradiol: efficacy and pharmacokinetic data review.Maturitas. 2017; 99: 51-58
- Not time to abandon use of local vaginal hormone therapies.Menopause. 2018; (published ahead of print June 2018): 25
- Working Group on Women’s Health and Well-Being in Menopause. Why the product labeling for low-dose vaginal estrogen should be changed.Menopause. 2014; 21: 911-916
- Efficacy of vaginal estradiol or vaginal moisturizer vs placebo for treating postmenopausal vulvovaginal symptoms: A randomized clinical trial.JAMA Intern Med. 2018; (published online ahead of print March 19, 2018)
- Effects of vaginal estradiol tablets and moisturizer on menopause-specific quality of life and mood in healthy postmenopausal women with vaginal symptoms: a randomized clinical trial.Menopause. 2018; 25 (published ahead of print May 2018)
Published online: August 06, 2018
Received: August 2, 2018
© 2018 Published by Elsevier B.V.