- •A narrative review is presented of the potential toxicity of plastic particles to humans.
- •Nanoparticles are more readily absorbed than microparticles.
- •Atmospheric pollution and ingestion of shellfish are major sources of plastic particles.
- •Toxicity is unlikely unless absorption of plastic particles is high and continuous.
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
- Production, use, and fate of all plastics ever made.Science Advances. 2017; 1700782https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1700782
- Evidence that the Great Pacific garbage patch is rapidly accumulating plastic.Sci. Rep. 2018; 8: 4666https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-22939-w
- Potential health impact of environmentally released micro- and nanoplastics in the human food production chain: experiences from nanotoxicology.Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015; 49: 8932-8947
- Cadmium, lead and bromine in beached microplastics.EnvironmentalPollution. 2017; 227: 139-145
- Polymers and the environment.Royal Soc. Chem. Lond. 1999; : 1-132
- Microplastics and nanoplastics in aquatic environments: aggregation, deposition and enhanced contaminant transport.Environ. Sci. Technol. 2018; 52: 1704-1724
- Evaluation of microplastic release caused by textile washing processes of synthetic fabrics.Environ. Pollut. 2018; 236: 916-925
- Microplastics in the sediments of Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica).Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2017; 122: 161-165
- Ubiquity of microplastics in coastal sea floor sediments.Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2017; 121: 104-110
- Detection of low numbers of microplastics in North Sea fish using strict quality assurance criteria.Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2017; 122: 253-258
- Low plastic ingestion rate in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from Newfound land destined for human consumption collected through citizen science methods.Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2016; 113: 428-437
- Microplastics in gut contents of coastal freshwater fish from Rio de la Plata estuary.Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2017; 12: 85-90
- Presence of microplastic in the digestive tracts of European flounder, Platichthys flesus, and European smelt, Osmerus eperlanus, from the River Thames.Environ. Pollut. 2017; 220: 744-751
- Marine aggregates facilitate ingestion of nanoparticles by suspension-feeding bivalves.Mar. Environ. Res. 2009; 68: 137-142
- Effects of nanopolystyrene on the feeding behaviour of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.).Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012; 31: 2490-2497
- Physical adsorption of charged plastic nanoparticles affects algal photosynthesis.J. Phys. Chem. 2010; 114: 16556-16561
- Food chain transport of nanoparticles affects behaviour and fat metabolism in fish.PLoS One. 2012; 7e32254
- Microplastics in bivalves cultured for human consumption.Environ. Pollut. 2014; 193: 65-70
- Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood -European database on contaminant levels.Environ. Res. 2015; 143: 29-45
- The plastics in microplastics: a review.Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2017; 119: 12-22
- Microbial hitchhikers on marine plastic debris: human exposure risks at bathing waters and beach environments.Mar. Environ. Res. 2016; 118: 10-19
- Microplastic contamination in an urban area: a case study in Greater Paris.Environ. Chem. 2015; 12: 592-599
- Airborne microplastics: consequences to human health?.Environ. Pollut. 2018; 234: 115-126
- A first overview of textile fibres including microplastics in indoor and outdoor environments.Environ. Pollut. 2017; 221: 453-458
- Synthetic particles as contaminants in German beers.Food Addit. Contam. Part. A, Chem. Anal. Control Exposure Risk Assess. 2014; 31: 1574-1578
R. Visagan, R. Grossman, P.A. Dimitriadis, A. Desai, ‘Crohn’z meanz Heinz’: Foreign body inflammatory mass mimicking Crohn’s disease, BMJ Case Rep (2013) 6th June Doi: 10.1136/bcr-2013-009603.
- Accidental ingestion of plastic from takeaway containers- food for thought.Med. J. Aust. 2011; 194: 245-246
- Plastic bread-bag clips in the gastrointestinal tract: report of 5 cases and review of the literature.Can. Med. Assoc. J. 2000; 162: 527-529
- Further studies on polymers as carcinogenic agents in animals.Cancer Res. 1955; 15: 333-340
- The biological fate of implanted rigid polyurethane foams.J Surg. Res. 1969; 9: 167-171
- Degradation and metabolism of synthetic plastics and associated products by Pseudomonoas sp.: capabilities and challenges.J. Appl. Microbiol. 2017; 123: 582-593
- Screening of Bacillus strains isolated from mangrove ecosystems in Peninsula Malaysia for microplastic degradation.Environ. Pollut. 2017; 231: 1552-1559
- Biodegradation and mineralisation of polystyrene by plastic-eating mealworms: part 2. Role of gut microorganisms.Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015; 49: 12087-12093
- Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding behaviour and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae.Ecotox Environ. Saf. 2016; 123: 18-25
- Microplastics effects on Scrobicularia plano.Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2017; 122: 379-391
- Size- and shape-dependent effects of microplastic particles on adult daggerblade grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio).Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry. 2017; 36: 3074-3080
- Accumulation and embryotoxicity of polystyrene nanoparticles at early stage of development of sea urchin embryos Paracentrotus lividus.Environ. Sci. Technol. 2014; 48: 12302-12311
- Cytotoxic effects of commonly used nanomaterials and microplastics on cerebral and epithelial human cells.Environ. Res. 2017; 159: 579-587
- Plastic and human health: a micro issue?.Environ. Sci. Technol. 2017; 51: 6634-6647
- Micro(nano)plastics: a threat to human health?.Curr. Opin. Environ. Sci. Health. 2018; 1: 17-23
- Oral exposure to polystyrene nanoparticles affects iron absorption.Nat. Nanotechnol. 2012; 7: 264-271
- Effects of particle size and surface modification on cellular uptake and biodistribution of polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery.Pharm. Res. 2013; 10: 2512-2522
- Brain-penetrating nanoparticles for analysis of the brain microenvironment.Methods Mol. Biol. 2017; 1570: 91-104
- Brain damage and behavioural disorders in fish induced by plastic nanoparticles delivered through the food chain.Sci. Rep. 2017; 7: 11452
- Effects of micro- and nanoplastics in aquatic ecosystems: current research trends and perspectives.Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2017; 124: 624-632
- Gestational exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles impairs the placentation through dysregulation of vascularization, proliferation and apoptosis in mice.Int. J. Nanomed. 2018; 13: 777-789
- Current understanding of the toxicological risk posed to the fetus following maternal exposure to nanoparticles.Exp. Opin. Drug. Metab. Toxicol. 2017; 13: 1251-1263