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Sarcopenia as a predictor of all-cause mortality among community-dwelling older people: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Highlights

      • A systematic review was performed to examine the association between sarcopenia and all-cause mortality among community-dwelling older people.
      • Sarcopenia is a significant predictor of all-cause mortality among community-dwelling older people.
      • It is important to diagnose sarcopenia and to intervene in order to reduce mortality rates in the elderly.

      Abstract

      The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the association between sarcopenia and all-cause mortality among community-dwelling older people.
      A systematic review was performed using three electronic databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library) to identify prospective cohort studies from January 2009 to February 2017 examining sarcopenia as a predictor of all-cause mortality among community–dwelling older people. We conducted a pooled analysis of mortality associated with sarcopenia, and subgroup analyses based on measurements of muscle mass and length of follow-up by employing a random-effects model. Sensitivity analyses were performed evaluate the cause of high heterogeneity. In addition, methodological quality, heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated.
      Of 1703 studies identified, 6 studies incorporating 7367 individuals were included in the meta-analysis for all-cause mortality. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality from the combination of included studies suggested participants with sarcopenia had a significantly higher rate of mortality (pooled HR 1.60, 95%CI 1.24–2.06, I2 = 27.8%, p = 0.216) than participants without sarcopenia. The subgroup analysis for length of follow-up suggested studies with a follow-up period of less than 5 years found a higher risk of all-cause mortality (pooled HR 2.09, 95%CI 1.21–3.60) than studies with a follow-up period of 5 years or more (pooled HR 1.52, 95%CI 1.14–2.01). A subgroup of anthropometric measures was found to identify higher mortality risks (pooled HR 2.26, 95%CI 1.30–3.92) than a subgroup of dual-energy x-ray (DXA) absorptiometry (pooled HR 1.82, 95%CI 1.04–3.18) factors or a subgroup of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) factors (pooled HR 1.31, 95%CI 1.15–1.49).
      Sarcopenia is a predictor of all-cause mortality among community-dwelling older people. Therefore, it is important to diagnose sarcopenia and to intervene, in order to reduce mortality rates in the elderly.

      Keywords

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