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A review of vitamin D and Parkinson's disease

  • Amie L. Peterson
    Correspondence
    Correspondence to: Oregon Health Sciences University, Mail Code: OP32, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, USA. Tel.: +1 503 494 7231; fax: +1 503 494 9059.
    Affiliations
    Oregon Health Sciences University, Mail Code: OP32, 3181, SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, USA

    Portland VA, 3710 SW US Veterans Hospital Road, Mail Code: P3PADRECC, Portland, OR 97239, USA
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      Abstract

      The role of vitamin D in bone health has been known for over a century. More recent research has suggested that vitamin D may play a role in the muscular, immune, endocrine, and central nervous systems. Animal research suggests that vitamin D may have some protective effects against toxic insults that are known to damage dopamine cells, the primary cells to degenerate in PD. Persons with PD tend to have lower vitamin D levels than persons of similar ages without PD. Vitamin D levels are generally associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in persons with PD, but simply giving vitamin D does not appear to improve BMD. Results of genetic studies examining polymorphism of the vitamin D receptor and PD risk, severity, or age at onset have shown variable results, with FokI CC seeming to possibly carry some increased risk of PD. Amount of sun exposure and vitamin D levels in earlier life may influence the risk of developing PD. Cross-sectional research suggests a relationship between vitamin D levels and severity of PD symptoms. A single intervention study did show some improvement in PD with vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D may have effects on PD symptoms and perhaps even on the risk of disease development or disease progression. More well designed intervention studies are needed to confirm the effect of vitamin D on PD symptoms. Human neuroprotection studies are needed, but probably not feasible until better biomarkers are established.

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      Linked Article

      • Response to the retraction of papers by Yoshihiro Sato - a review of vitamin D and Parkinson's disease
        MaturitasVol. 148
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          In light of the recent retraction of Yoshihiro Sato's publications due to findings of fraudulent data, I and the editors of Maturitas felt it appropriate to reassess the review I authored (then under the name Peterson) published in 2014 entitled ‘A review of vitamin D and Parkinson's disease’, in which Sato's publications played a prominent role. [1] Not all Sato's papers have been retracted at this time, but we feel it necessary to point out which assessments of the evidence contained in the review may have been affected had the publications from Sato not been included.
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