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Relationship between postmenopausal osteoporosis and the components of clinical sarcopenia

      Abstract

      Purpose

      The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the components of clinical sarcopenia and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

      Methods

      A population-based cohort of 590 Finnish postmenopausal women (mean age 67.9; range 65–72) was selected from the Osteoporosis Fracture Prevention (OSTPRE-FPS) study in 2002. Bone mineral density (BMD) and lean tissue mass were assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The study sample was divided into three categories according to the WHO BMD classification: normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis. The study sample was divided into non-sarcopenic, presarcopenic, sarcopenic and non-classified groups according to quartiles of RSMI i.e. relative skeletal muscle index (appendicular muscle mass (kg)/square of height (m)), hand grip strength (kPa) and walking speed.

      Results

      In logistic regression analysis sarcopenic women had 12.9 times higher odds of having osteoporosis (p ≤ 0.001, OR = 12.9; 95% CI = 3.1–53.5) in comparison to non-sarcopenic women. In comparison to women in the highest grip strength quartile, women within the lowest quartile had 11.7 times higher odds of having osteoporosis (p = 0.001, OR = 11.7; 2.6–53.4). Sarcopenic women had 2.7 times higher odds of having fractures than their non-sarcopenic counterparts (p = 0.005, OR = 2.732; 1.4–5.5). Sarcopenic women had also 2.1 times higher risk of falls during the preceding 12 months compared to non-sarcopenic women (p = 0.021, OR = 2.1; 1.1–3.9). Adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and hormone therapy (HT) did not significantly alter these results.

      Conclusions

      The components of clinical sarcopenia are strongly associated with osteoporosis. Grip strength is the most significant measurement to reveal the association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis, falls and fractures.

      Keywords

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