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A view of geriatrics through hormones. What is the relation between andropause and well-known geriatric syndromes?

      Abstract

      Age related male hypogonadism, or “andropause”, is increasingly recognized as of frequent occurrence in older patients. Diagnosis requires both the presence of clinical symptoms and low testosterone levels. However, diagnosing andropause in this age group may be challenging since symptoms are frequently non specific and testosterone levels are influenced by a multitude of parameters such as lifestyle factors and chronic diseases. In this article we discuss the pathophysiology, definition and diagnostic difficulties of andropause in geriatric patients. Moreover, we review the relation between testosterone levels and frequent geriatric syndromes such as falls, osteoporosis, cognitive and mood disorders, anemia and cardiovascular disease. Finally, we examine the potential benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy in this age group.

      Abbreviations:

      AD (Alzheimer's disease), BMD (bone mineral density), BT (bioavailable testosterone), CV (cardiovascular), E2 (estradiol), FSH (follicule stimulating hormone), FT (free testosterone), GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone), IM (intramuscular), LH (luteinizing hormone), PSA (prostate specific antigen), SHBG (sexual hormone binding globulin), T (testosterone), T2D (type 2 diabetes), TRT (testosterone replacement therapy), TT (total testosterone)

      Keywords

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