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Levels of vitamin D and cardiometabolic disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Johanna Parker
    Affiliations
    Health Sciences Research Institute, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom
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  • Omar Hashmi
    Affiliations
    Health Sciences Research Institute, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom
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  • David Dutton
    Affiliations
    Clinical Sciences Research Institute, Clifford Bridge Road, Coventry CV2 2DX, United Kingdom
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  • Angelique Mavrodaris
    Affiliations
    Health Sciences Research Institute, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom
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  • Saverio Stranges
    Affiliations
    Health Sciences Research Institute, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom
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  • Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala
    Affiliations
    Clinical Sciences Research Institute, Clifford Bridge Road, Coventry CV2 2DX, United Kingdom
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  • Aileen Clarke
    Affiliations
    Health Sciences Research Institute, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Oscar H. Franco as guarantor of this paper accepts full responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis, had full access to all the data in the study, and controlled the decision to publish.
    Oscar H. Franco
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: B-160, Health Sciences Research Institute, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom. Tel.: +44 2476 575884.
    Footnotes
    1 Oscar H. Franco as guarantor of this paper accepts full responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis, had full access to all the data in the study, and controlled the decision to publish.
    Affiliations
    Health Sciences Research Institute, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Oscar H. Franco as guarantor of this paper accepts full responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis, had full access to all the data in the study, and controlled the decision to publish.

      Abstract

      Cardiometabolic disorders and vitamin D deficiency are becoming increasingly more prevalent across multiple populations. Different studies have suggested a potential association between abnormal vitamin D levels and multiple pathological conditions including cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.
      We aimed to evaluate the association between vitamin D levels, using 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) as an indicator of vitamin D status, and the presence of cardiometabolic disorders including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome.
      We performed a systematic review of the current literature on vitamin D and cardiometabolic disorders using the PubMed and Web of Knowledge databases in September 2009. Studies in adults looking at the effect of vitamin D levels on outcomes relating to cardiometabolic disorders were selected. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders comparing the highest and lowest groups of serum 25OHD.
      From 6130 references we identified 28 studies that met our inclusion criteria, including 99,745 participants. There was moderate variation between the studies in their grouping of 25OHD levels, design and analytical approach. We found that the highest levels of serum 25OHD were associated with a 43% reduction in cardiometabolic disorders [OR 0.57, 95% (CI 0.48–0.68)]. Similar levels were observed, irrespective of the individual cardiometabolic outcome evaluated or study design. High levels of vitamin D among middle-age and elderly populations are associated with a substantial decrease in cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. If the relationship proves to be causal, interventions targeting vitamin D deficiency in adult populations could potentially slow the current epidemics of cardiometabolic disorders.

      Abbreviations:

      CI (95% confidence interval), CVD (Cardiovascular disease), DM (Type 2 diabetes mellitus), MetS (Metabolic syndrome), MI (Myocardial infarction), OR (Odds ratio), RCT (Randomised control trial), 25OHD (25-Hydroxy vitamin D)

      Keywords

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