To analyse prospectively the effect of calcium or calcium + D supplementation on coronary heart disease (CHD) in 52–62-year-old women.
Methods and results
10,555 52–62-year-old women from the population-based Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention Study (OSTPRE) who did not have CHD at baseline were followed for nearly 7 years in 1994–2001. Information about use of calcium supplements and health events was obtained from two repeated questionnaires in 1989 and 1994. Information about causes of death during the follow-up was obtained from the Statistics Finland. Information about CHD and other disease morbidity before and during the follow-up was obtained from the Registry of Specially Refunded Drugs of the Finnish Social Insurance Institution (SII). Cox's proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the risk of CHD morbidity related to the use of calcium supplements. At baseline, 2723 women reported current use of calcium or calcium + D supplementation. During the follow-up, CHD was diagnosed in 513 women. Compared to non-users of calcium/calcium + D supplements, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of CHD was 1.24 (95% CI 1.02–1.52) in women who used these supplements. The multivariate adjusted HR for CHD morbidity in postmenopausal women who used calcium/calcium + D supplements was 1.26 (95% CI 1.01–1.57).
Calcium or calcium + D supplementation appears to increase the risk of CHD among women before old age.
Abbreviations:HT (hormone therapy), OSTPRE (Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention Study), CHD (coronary heart disease), CVD (cardiovascular disease), MI (myocardial infarction), WHO (World Health Organization), ICD (The International Classification of Diseases), WHI (The Women's Health Initiative), SII (The Finnish Social Insurance Institution), LDL-C (low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol), HDL-C (high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol)
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Published online: April 06, 2009
Accepted: March 10, 2009
Received in revised form: March 7, 2009
Received: June 9, 2008
© 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.