The aim of this study was to evaluate age at menopause, climacteric symptoms and related factors in women living in west Anatolian rural region of Turkey.
This study included 761 menopausal women living in three rural towns. Questionnaires regarding to 10 climacteric symptoms, menopausal status, sociodemographic characteristics, parity, breastfeeding, presence of chronic illness, direct sun exposure, smoking, caffeine use and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were filled out by face-to-face interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess confounding factors on the age of menopause and menopausal status.
Mean age at menopause was 44.38 ± 5.30 years. Breastfeeding more than one year, low level of direct sun exposure and mother's early age at menopause were associated with early onset of menopause. The most prevalent climacteric symptoms were urine leakage, decreased libido, lack of energy and poor memory in post-menopausal and hot flushes in peri-menopausal women. Somatic and psychological symptoms were associated with hot flushes. HRT and osteoporosis treatment usage were higher in surgical menopause group. Osteoporosis and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DT) were more common in natural menopause group. No association was found with onset of menopause and smoking, excess caffeine use, BMI, marital status and presence of chronic illness. Cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension (HT), diabetes and obesity were common in post-menopausal women.
Onset of menopause in Turkish women living in rural region is earlier on average women living in western or industrialized countries. Hot flushes in peri-menopausal, and urogenital, and psychological in post-menopausal women are the most prevalent symptoms. Primary care services in rural districts should focus on cardiovascular risks of menopausal women.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Maturitas
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- The age of menopause and the menopause transition in a multiracial population: a nation-wide Singapore study.Maturitas. 2005; 52: 169-180
- The age and symptomatology of natural menopause among United Arab Emirates women.Maturitas. 1998; 29: 197-202
- Prevalence of menopausal symptoms in different ethnic groups of Asian women and responsiveness to therapy with three doses of conjugated estrogens/medroxyprogesterone acetate: the Pan-Asia menopause (PAM) study.Maturitas. 2005; 52: 264-276
- The prevalence of menopausal symptoms in a community in Singapore.Maturitas. 2002; 41: 275-282
- International versions of the menopause rating scale (MRS).Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2003; 1: 28
- Clinical equivalence of intranasal estradiol and oral estrogens for postmenopausal symptoms.Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2002; 79: 143-146
Report of a WHO Scientific Group. Research on the menopause in the 1990s, WHO technical report series 866. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1996.
- Beers M.H. Berkow R. Nutritional Disorders. The Merck manual of diagnosis and therapy. N.J. Merck Research Laboratories, Whitehouse Station1999: 26
- The frequency distribution of age at natural menopause among Saudi Arabian women.Maturitas. 2003; 46: 263-272
- Age at natural menopause in Spain and the United States: results from the DAMES project.Am J Hum Biol. 2005; 17: 331-340
- Age at natural menopause and sociodemographic status in Finland.Am J Epidemiol. 1994; 139: 64-76
- Menopause in Africa.Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2005; 66: 105-107
- Menopausal transition in Movima women, a Bolivian Native-American.Maturitas. 2005; 51: 380-385
- The menopausal age, related factors and climacteric symptoms in Turkish women.Maturitas. 1998; 30: 37-40
- Risk factors of early menopause in two generations of gainfully employed French women.Maturitas. 1997; 26: 165-174
- Sun exposure and age at natural menopause: a cross-sectional study in Turkish women.Maturitas. 2005; 52: 235-248
- A prospective population-based study of menopausal symptoms.Obstet Gynecol. 2000; 96: 351-358
- Cigarette smoking in the menopausal women.Primary care update Obstet Gynecol. 1996; 3: 212-215
- Climacteric symptoms in a postmenopausal Czech population.Maturitas. 1996; 23: 85-89
- Investigation of blood pressure levels in Turkish adults: 8-year trends, rate of treatment, relationship to other risk factors and to coronary disease.Turk Soc Cardiol Arch. 1999; 27: 136-143
- Reproductive and dietary determinants of the age at menopause in EPIC-Heidelberg.Maturitas. 2005; 52: 337-347
- Menopause in Australia and Japan: effects of country of residence on menopausal status and menopausal symptoms.Climacteric. 2004; 7: 165-174
- Hot flushes in the late reproductive years: risk factors for African American and Caucasian women.J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2001; 10: 67-76
- A population based survey of women's experience of the menopause.Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1996; 103: 1025-1028
- The perception of menopause among women in Taiwan.Maturitas. 2002; 41: 269-274
- Sexual function in menopausal women in Kelantan, Malaysia.Maturitas. 2005; 52: 256-263
- The menopause and sexual functioning: a review of the population-based studies.Annu Rev Sex Res. 2003; 14: 64-82
- Climacteric symptoms in an unselected sample of Swedish women.Maturitas. 1984; 6: 345-350
- Self-reported urogenital symptoms in postmenopausal women: women's health initiative.Maturitas. 2004; 49: 292-303
- Symptoms at pre- and postmenopause in rural and urban women from three States of Mexico.Maturitas. 2002; 43: 11-19
- Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women.Minerva Endocrinol. 2005; 30: 27-36
- Risks benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. Principal results from the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial.JAMA. 2002; 288: 321-333
- Why do postmenopausal women discontinue hormone replacement therapy?.Maturitas. 1999; 33: 99-105
- Hormone therapies in women aged 40 and older: prevalence and correlates of use.Maturitas. 2006; 53: 65-76
- Cardiovascular disease risk factors in post-menopausal women in West Anatolia.Jpn Heart J. 2004; 42: 119-131
Accepted: March 27, 2006
Received in revised form: March 24, 2006
Received: December 7, 2005
© 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.