Historical perspective| Volume 3, ISSUE 2, P115-123, August 1981

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone and the menopausal hot flash

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      The possibility that the sudden discharge of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the brain triggers the climacteric hot flash was tested (double-blind) by an intra-venous, bolus injection of 500 μg of TRH into 7 post-menopausal women and 1 menstruating control. Temperatures and sweating were recorded continuously on the recumbent subject during the 2-h test. None of the women reacted either subjectively or objectively to the placebo. TRH induced gastric pain in 1 post-menopausal subject. In another subject TRH elicited no response during the first test, but a week later in a second test it evoked transient nausea and a series of hot flashes with bursts of sweating. Published results of animal studies suggest that a higher dose of TRH would probably stimulate hot flash-like responses in more women.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Maturitas
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Sturdee D.W.
        • Reece B.L.
        Thermography of menopausal hot flushes.
        Maturitas. 1979; 1: 201-205
        • Molnar G.W.
        Body temperatures during menopausal hot flashes.
        J. Appl. Physiol. 1975; 38: 499-503
        • Lauritzen C.
        The hypothalamic anterior pituitary system in the climacteric age period.
        in: Estrogens in the post-menopause. Front. Horm. Res.3. 1975: 20
        • Ormston B.J.
        • Garry R.
        • Cryer R.J.
        • Besser G.M.
        • Hall R.
        Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone as a thyroid-function test.
        Lancet. 1971; 2: 10-14
        • Anderson M.S.
        • Bowers C.Y.
        • Kastin A.J.
        • Schalch D.S.
        • Schally A.V.
        • Snyder P.J.
        • Utiger RR.D.
        • Wilber J.F.
        • Wise A.J.
        Synthetic thyrotropin-releasing hormone: a potent stimulator of thyrotropin secretion in man.
        N. Engl. J. Med. 1971; 285: 1279-1283
        • Rothenbuchner G.
        Remarks during discussion following presentation by S. Almqvist.
        • Wilson I.C.
        • Prange Jr., A.J.
        • Lara P.P.
        • Alltop L.B.
        • Stikeleather R.A.
        • Lipton M.A.
        TRH (Lopremone): psychobiological responses of normal women. I. Subjective experiences.
        Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 1973; 29: 15-21
        • Molnar G.W.
        Investigation of hot flashes by ambulatory monitoring.
        Am. J. Physiol. 1979; 237: R306-R310
        • Molnar G.W.
        An inexpensive alternating support bed for the prevention of bedsores.
        in: 25th A.C.E.M.B.1972: 91
        • Molnar G.W.
        Electrocardiographic registration of sweating during routine monitoring.
        Psychophysiology. 1977; 14: 64-67
        • Nemeroff C.B.
        • Loosen P.T.
        • Bissette G.
        • Manberg P.J.
        • Wilson I.C.
        • Lipton M.A.
        • Prange Jr., A.J.
        Pharmaco-behavioral effects of hypothalamic peptides in animals and man: focus on thyrotropin-releasing hormone and neurotensin.
        Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1979; 3: 279-310
        • Yarbrough G.G.
        On the neuropharmacology of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH).
        Prog. Neurobiol. 1979; 12: 291-312
        • Schenkel-Hulliger L.
        • Koella W.P.
        • Hartman A.
        Tremorogenic effect of thyrotropin releasing hormone in rats.
        Experientia. 1974; 30: 1168-1170
        • Redding T.W.
        • Schally A.V.
        Studies on the inactivation of thyrotropin releasing factor (TRF).
        in: Fed. Proc., Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol.27. 1968: 823
        • Green A.R.
        • Grahame-Smith D.G.
        TRH potentiates behavioural changes following increased brain 5-hydroxytryptamine accumulation in rats.
        Nature. 1974; 251: 524-526
        • Plotnikoff N.P.
        • Prange Jr., A.J.
        • Breese G.R.
        • Anderson M.S.
        • Wilson I.C.
        Thyrotropin releasing hormone: enhancement of dopa activity by a hypothalamic hormone.
        Science. 1972; 178: 417-418
        • Almqvist S.
        Clinical side effects of TRH.
        Front Horm. Res. 1972; 1: 38-39
        • Fleischer N.
        • Burgus R.
        • Vale W.
        • Dunn T.
        • Guillemin R.
        Preliminary observations on the effect of synthetic thyrotropin releasing factor on plasma thyrotropin levels in man.
        J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1970; 31: 109-112
        • Hershman J.M.
        • Pittman Jr., J.A.
        Response to synthetic thyrotropin-releasing hormone in man.
        J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1970; 31: 457-460
        • Ormston B.J.
        Remarks during discussion following presentation by S. Almqvist.
        • Loosen P.T.
        • Prange Jr., A.J.
        • Wilson I.C.
        TRH (Protirelin) in depressed alcoholic men.
        Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 1979; 36: 540-547
        • Prange Jr., A.J.
        • Loosen P.T.
        • Wilson I.C.
        • Meltzer H.Y.
        • Fang V.S.
        Behavioral and endocrine responses of schizophrenic patients to TRH (Protirelin).
        Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 1979; 36: 1086-1093
        • Smith J.R.
        • La Hann T.R.
        • Chesnut R.M.
        • Carino M.A.
        • Horita A.
        Thyrotropin-releasing hormone: stimulation of colonic activity following intracercbroventricular administration.
        Science. 1977; 196: 660-662
        • Dolva L.
        • Stadaas J.O.
        Actions of thyrotropin-releasing hormone on gastrointestinal functions in man. III. Inhibition of gastric motility in response to distension.
        Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 1979; 14: 419-423